Prescription Drug Abuse - The New York Times


drug article

The United States justice system tries drug offenses on a daily basis, primarily through state courts. Because the vast majority of drug offenses are state cases rather than federal cases, individuals convicted of these crimes are largely tried and sentenced at the discretion of their local justice systems. Addiction is a disease that affects your brain and behavior. When you’re addicted to drugs, you can’t resist the urge to use them, no matter how much harm the drugs may cause. Drug addiction Author: Teresa Dumain. Recreational drug use is the use of a drug (legal, controlled, or illegal) with the primary intention of altering the state of consciousness through alteration of the central nervous system in order to create positive emotions and feelings. The hallucinogen LSD is a psychoactive drug commonly used as a recreational drug.

Drug Abuse and Addiction -

A drug is any substance that causes drug article change in an organism's physiology or psychology when consumed. Drugs are typically distinguished from food and substances that provide nutritional support. Consumption of drugs can be via inhalationinjectionsmokingingestionabsorption via a patch on the skin, or dissolution under the tongue. In pharmacologya drug is a chemical substance, typically of known structure, which, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect.

Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes —groups of related drugs that have similar drug article structuresthe same mechanism of action binding to the same biological targeta related mode of actionand that are used to treat the same disease, drug article. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. This classifies drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties.

Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the central nervous systemaltering perceptionmood or consciousness. These psychotropic drugs have been proven useful in treating wide range of medical conditions including mental disorders around drug article world.

The most widely used drugs in the world include caffeinenicotine and alcohol[12] which are also considered recreational drugssince they are used for pleasure rather than medicinal purposes. Many recreational drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition, drug article.

In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving later into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved in them. A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition. The use may also be as preventive medicine that has drug article benefits but does drug article treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.

Drug article of medication is often regulated by governments into three categories— over-the-counter medications, drug article, which are available in pharmacies and drug article without special restrictions; behind-the-counter medicines, which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's prescription, and prescription only medicineswhich must be prescribed by a licensed medical professionalusually a physician. In the United Kingdom, behind-the-counter medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist.

These medications are designated by the letter P on drug article label, drug article. Medications are typically produced drug article pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them. Those that are not patented or with expired patents are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.

Pharmaceutical drugs are usually categorised into drug classes. A group drug article drugs will share a similar chemical structureor have the same mechanism of actionthe same related mode of action or target the same illness or related illnesses. This groups drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties. Some religions, particularly ethnic religions are based completely on the use of certain drugs, known as entheogenswhich are mostly hallucinogens ,— psychedelicsdrug article, dissociativesor deliriants.

Some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulanta drug articlea euphoriant and an anesthetic. The roots of the kava plant are used to produce a drink which is consumed throughout the cultures of the Pacific Ocean. Some shamans from different cultures use entheogens, defined as "generating the divine within" [21] to achieve religious ecstasy.

Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia divinorum a psychoactive plant, drug article. Its use is to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions. Silene undulata is regarded drug article the Xhosa people as a sacred plant and used as an entheogen. Its root is traditionally used to induce vivid and according to the Drug article, prophetic lucid dreams during the initiation process of shamansclassifying it a naturally occurring oneirogen similar to the more well-known dream herb Calea ternifolia.

Peyote a small spineless drug article has been a major source of psychedelic mescaline and has probably been used by Native Americans for drug article least five thousand years. The entheogenic use of cannabis has also been widely practised [27] for centuries. Psychedelic mushrooms psilocybin mushroomscommonly called magic mushrooms or shrooms have also long been used as entheogens.

Nootropicsdrug article, also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to improve human cognitive abilities. Nootropics are used to improve memory, drug article, concentration, thought, mood, drug article, and learning. Drug article increasingly used nootropic among students, also known as a study drugis methylphenidate branded commonly as Ritalin and used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy.

Evidence for use outside drug article student settings is limited but suggests that that it is commonplace. Some nootropics are also now beginning to be used to treat medical conditions such as Parkinson's diseasedrug article, and Alzheimer's disease.

They are also commonly used to regain brain function lost during aging. Other drugs known as designer drugs are produced, drug article. An early example of what today would be labelled a 'designer drug' was LSDwhich was synthesised from ergot. Since the late s there has been the identification of many of these synthesised drugs. In Japan and the United Kingdom this has spurred the addition of many designer drugs into a newer class of controlled substances known as a temporary class drug.

Synthetic cannabinoids have been produced for a longer period of time and are used in the designer drug synthetic cannabis. Recreational drug use is the use of a drug legal, controlled, drug article, or illegal with the primary intention of altering the state of consciousness through alteration of the central nervous system in order to create positive emotions and feelings.

The hallucinogen LSD is a psychoactive drug commonly used as a recreational drug. Some national laws prohibit the use of different recreational drugs; and medicinal drugs that have the potential for recreational use are often heavily regulated, drug article.

However, there are many recreational drugs that are legal in many jurisdictions and widely culturally accepted. Cannabis is the most commonly consumed controlled recreational drug in the world as of It can be used in the leaf form of marijuana grassor in the resin form of hashish. Marijuana is a more mild form of cannabis than hashish. There may be an age restriction on the consumption and purchase of legal recreational drugs. Some recreational drugs that are legal and accepted in many places include alcoholtobaccodrug article, betel nutand caffeine products, and in some areas of the world the legal use of drugs such as khat is common.

There are a number of legal intoxicants commonly called legal highs that are used recreationally. The most widely used of these is alcohol. All drugs, drug article, can be administered via a number of routesdrug article, and many can be administered by more than one, drug article. There are numerous governmental offices in many countries that deal with the control and oversee of drug manufacture and use, and the implementation of various drug laws.

The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international treaty brought about in to prohibit the use of narcotics save for those used in medical research and treatment. Ina second drug article the Convention on Psychotropic Substances had to be introduced to deal with newer recreational psychoactive and psychedelic drugs, drug article. The legal status of Salvia divinorum varies in many countries and even in states within the United States.

Where it is legislated against the degree of prohibition also varies. The Food and Drug Administration FDA in the United States is a federal agency responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safetytobacco productsdietary supplementsprescription and over-the-counter medicationsdrug articlebiopharmaceuticalsblood transfusionsmedical deviceselectromagnetic radiation emitting devices, cosmeticsanimal foods [39] and veterinary drugs.

From Wikipedia, drug article, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Drug disambiguation. Substance having an effect on the body. Main articles: Pharmaceutical drug and Drug class. Main article: Entheogen. Main articles: Nootropic and Designer drug.

Main article: Recreational drug use. Further information: Prohibition of drugs. Main article: Route of administration. Bolus is the administration of a medication, drug or other compound that is drug article to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level. The administration can be given intravenously, by intramuscular, drug article, intrathecal or subcutaneous injection.

Inhaledbreathed into the lungsdrug article, as an drug article or dry powder. This includes smoking a substance Injection as a solutionsuspension or emulsion either: intramuscularintravenousintraperitonealintraosseous.

Insufflationor snorted into the nose. Orallyas a liquid or solid, drug article, that is absorbed through the intestines. Rectally as a suppositorythat is absorbed by the rectum or colon, drug article.

Sublinguallydiffusing into the blood through tissues under the tongue. Topicallydrug article, usually as a cream or ointment. A drug administered in this manner may be given to act locally or systemically. Pharmacy and Pharmacology portal. Meredith Hopes ed. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, drug article. Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 15 January Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved Random House.

Archived from the original on 14 September — via Dictionary. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Archived from the original on Retrieved — via Drugs. M, Dale; J. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Biotechnol Adv. The Drug article Heritage Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. Archived from the original on 14 September


Drug - Wikipedia


drug article


Nov 20,  · Drug abuse and addiction, now both grouped as substance or drug use disorder, is a condition characterized by a self-destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant problems and distress, which may include tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance. Sep 07,  · News about Prescription Drug Abuse. Commentary and archival information about Prescription Drug Abuse from The New York Times. no longer supports Internet Explorer 9 . is the most popular, comprehensive and up-to-date source of drug information online. Providing free, peer-reviewed, accurate and independent data on more than 24, prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines & natural products.